Assimilation of All-Sky Radiance from the FY-3 MWHS-2 with the Yinhe 4D-Var System


  • Compared with traditional microwave humidity sounding capabilities at 183 GHz, new channels at 118 GHz have been mounted on the second generation of the Microwave Humidity Sounder (MWHS-2) onboard the Chinese FY-3C and FY-3D polar orbit meteorological satellites, which helps to perform moisture sounding. In this study, as the all-sky approach can manage non-linear and non-Gaussian behavior in cloud- and precipitation-affected satellite radiances, the MWHS-2 radiances in all-sky conditions were first assimilated in the Yinhe four-dimensional variational data assimilation (YH4DVAR) system. The data quality from MWHS-2 was evaluated based on observation minus background statistics. It is found that the MWHS-2 data of both FY-3C and FY-3D are of good quality in general. Six months of MWHS-2 radiances in all-sky conditions were then assimilated in the YH4DVAR system. Based on the forecast scores and observation fits, we conclude that the all-sky assimilation of the MWHS-2 at 118- and 183-GHz channels on FY-3C/D is beneficial to the analysis and forecast fields of the temperature and humidity, and the impact on the forecast skill scores is neutral to positive. Additionally, we compared the impacts of assimilating the 118-GHz channels and the equivalent Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSUA) channels on global forecast accuracy in the absence of other satellite observations. Overall, the impact of the 118-GHz channels on the forecast accuracy is not as large as that for the equivalent AMSUA channels. Nevertheless, all-sky radiance assimilation of MWHS-2 in the YH4DVAR system has indeed benefited from the 118-GHz channels.
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