Simulation of the Northern and Southern Hemisphere Annular Modes by CAMS-CSM


  • As leading modes of the planetary-scale atmospheric circulation in the extratropics, the Northern Hemisphere (NH) annular mode (NAM) and Southern Hemisphere (SH) annular mode (SAM) are important components of global circulation, and their variabilities substantially impact the climate in mid−high latitudes. A 35-yr (1979−2013) simulation by the climate system model developed at the Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences (CAMS-CSM) was carried out based on observed sea surface temperature and sea ice data. The ability of CAMS-CSM in simulating horizontal and vertical structures of the NAM and SAM, relation of the NAM to the East Asian climate, and temporal variability of the SAM is examined and validated against the observational data. The results show that CAMS-CSM captures the zonally symmetric and out-of-phase variations of sea level pressure anomaly between the midlatitudes and polar zones in the extratropics of the NH and SH. The model has also captured the equivalent barotropic structure in tropospheric geopotential height and the meridional shifts of the NH and SH jet systems associated with the NAM and SAM anomalies. Furthermore, the model is able to reflect the variability of northern and southern Ferrel cells corresponding to the NAM and SAM anomalies. The model reproduces the observed relationship of the boreal winter NAM with the East Asian trough and air temperature over East Asia. It also captures the upward trend of the austral summer SAM index during recent decades. However, compared with the observation, the model shows biases in both the intensity and center locations of the NAM’s and SAM’s horizontal and vertical structures. Specifically, it overestimates their intensities.
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