[1] Alexander, L. V., X. Zhang, T. C. Peterson, et al., 2006: Global observed changes in daily climate extremes of temperature and precipitation. J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 11, D05109. doi: 10.1029/2005JD006290
[2] Berg, A. A., J. S. Famiglietti, J. P. Walker, et al., 2003: Impact of bias correction to reanalysis products on simulations of North American soil moisture and hydrological fluxes. J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 108, 4490. doi: 10.1029/2002JD003334
[3] Chen, G. X., T. Iwasaki, H. L. Qin, et al., 2014: Evaluation of the warm-season diurnal variability over East Asia in recent reanalyses JRA-55, ERA-interim, NCEP CFSR, and NASA MERRA. J. Climate, 27, 5517–5537. doi: 10.1175/JCLI-D-14-00005.1
[4] Chen, H. P., and J. Q. Sun, 2015: Changes in drought characteristics over China using the standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index. J. Climate, 28, 5430–5447. doi: 10.1175/JCLI-D-14-00707.1
[5] Chen, S., Y. Hong, Q. Cao, et al., 2013: Similarity and difference of the two successive V6 and V7 TRMM multisatellite precipitation analysis performance over China. J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 118, 13060–13074. doi: 10.1002/2013JD019964
[6] Chen, T. C., 1985: Global water vapor flux and maintenance during FGGE. Mon. Wea. Rev., 113, 1801–1819. doi: 10.1175/1520-0493(1985)113<1801:GWVFAM>2.0.CO;2
[7] Committee for the Verification of Terms in Atmospheric Sciences, 2009: Chinese Terms in Atmospheric Science, 3rd ed., Science Press, Beijing, 14 pp. (in Chinese)
[8] Dai, A. G., X. Lin, and K. L. Hsu, 2007: The frequency, intensity, and diurnal cycle of precipitation in surface and satellite observations over low- and mid-latitudes. Climate Dyn., 29, 727–744. doi: 10.1007/s00382-007-0260-y
[9] Dai, Z. J., R. C. Yu, J. Li, et al., 2011: The characteristics of summer precipitation diurnal variations in three reanalysis datasets over China. Meteor. Mon., 37, 21–30. (in Chinese) doi: 10.7519/j.issn.1000-0526.2011.1.003
[10] Decker, M., M. A. Brunke, Z. Wang, et al., 2012: Evaluation of the reanalysis products from GSFC, NCEP, and ECMWF using flux tower observations. J. Climate, 25, 1916–1944. doi: 10.1175/JCLI-D-11-00004.1
[11] Dee, D. P., S. M. Uppala, A. J. Simmons, et al., 2011: The ERA-Interim reanalysis: Configuration and performance of the data assimilation system. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 137, 553–597. doi: 10.1002/qj.828
[12] Ding, Y. H., 1992: Summer monsoon rainfalls in China. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 70, 373–396. doi: 10.2151/jmsj1965.70.1B_373
[13] Ding, Y. H., 1994: Monsoons over China. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, 419 pp.
[14] Ding, Y. H., and J. C. L. Chan, 2005: The East Asian summer monsoon: An overview. Meteor. Atmos. Phys., 89, 117–142. doi: 10.1007/s00703-005-0125-z
[15] Donat, M. G., J. Sillmann, S. Wild, et al., 2014: Consistency of temperature and precipitation extremes across various global gridded in situ and reanalysis datasets. J. Climate, 27, 5019–5035. doi: 10.1175/JCLI-D-13-00405.1
[16] Duan, Y. W., Z. G. Ma, and Q. Yang, 2017: Characteristics of consecutive dry days variations in China. Theor. Appl. Climatol., 130, 701–709. doi: 10.1007/s00704-016-1984-6
[17] Ebert, E. E., J. E. Janowiak, and C. Kidd, 2007: Comparison of near-real-time precipitation estimates from satellite observations and numerical models. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 88, 47–64. doi: 10.1175/BAMS-88-1-47
[18] Ferraro, R. R., 1997: Special sensor microwave imager derived global rainfall estimates for climatological applications. J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 102, 16715–16735. doi: 10.1029/97JD01210
[19] Gao, X., Y. Shi, R. Song, et al., 2008: Reduction of future monsoon precipitation over China: Comparison between a high resolution RCM simulation and the driving GCM. Meteor. Atmos. Phys., 100, 73–86. doi: 10.1007/s00703-008-0296-5
[20] Gao, X. J., Y. Xu, Z. C. Zhao, et al., 2006: On the role of resolution and topography in the simulation of East Asia precipitation. Theor. Appl. Climatol., 86, 173–185. doi: 10.1007/s00704-005-0214-4
[21] Gao, Y. X., and S. Y. Xu, 1962: Some Issues of the East Asian Monsoon. Science Press, Beijing, 106 pp.
[22] Guo, H., S. Chen, A. M. Bao, et al., 2016: Early assessment of integrated multi-satellite retrievals for global precipitation measurement over China. Atmos. Res., 176–177, 121–133. doi: 10.1016/j.atmosres.2016.02.020
[23] Hofstra, N., M. New, and C. McSweeney, 2010: The influence of interpolation and station network density on the distributions and trends of climate variables in gridded daily data. Climate Dyn., 35, 841–858. doi: 10.1007/s00382-009-0698-1
[24] Hubacek, K., D. B. Guan, and A. Barua, 2007: Changing lifestyles and consumption patterns in developing countries: A scenario analysis for China and India. Futures, 39, 1084–1096. doi: 10.1016/j.futures.2007.03.010
[25] Isotta, F. A., R. Vogel, and C. Frei, 2015: Evaluation of European regional reanalyses and downscalings for precipitation in the Alpine region. Meteorologische Zeitschrift, 24, 15–37. doi: 10.1127/metz/2014/0584
[26] Kidd, C., 2001: Satellite rainfall climatology: A review. Int. J. Climatol., 21, 1041–1066. doi: 10.1002/joc.635
[27] Kidd, C., and G. Huffman, 2011: Global precipitation measurement. Meteor. Appl., 18, 334–353. doi: 10.1002/met.284
[28] Kidd, C., and V. Levizzani, 2011: Status of satellite precipitation retrievals. Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 15, 1109–1116. doi: 10.5194/hess-15-1109-2011
[29] Kirschbaum, D. B., G. J. Huffman, R. F. Adler, et al., 2017: NASA’s remotely sensed precipitation: A reservoir for applications users. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 98, 1169–1184. doi: 10.1175/BAMS-D-15-00296.1
[30] Kobayashi, S., Y. Ota, Y. Harada, et al., 2015: The JRA-55 reanalysis: General specifications and basic characteristics. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 93, 5–48. doi: 10.2151/jmsj.2015-001
[31] Kucera, P. A., E. E. Ebert, F. J. Turk, et al., 2013: Precipitation from space: Advancing earth system science. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 94, 365–375. doi: 10.1175/BAMS-D-11-00171.1
[32] Lin, R. P., T. J. Zhou, and Y. Qian, 2014: Evaluation of global monsoon precipitation changes based on five reanalysis datasets. J. Climate, 27, 1271–1289. doi: 10.1175/JCLI-D-13-00215.1
[33] Luo, L. F., W. Tang, Z. H. Lin, et al., 2013: Evaluation of summer temperature and precipitation predictions from NCEP CFSv2 retrospective forecast over China. Climate Dyn., 41, 2213–2230. doi: 10.1007/s00382-013-1927-1
[34] Ma, L. J., T. J. Zhang, O. W. Frauenfeld, et al., 2009: Evaluation of precipitation from the ERA-40, NCEP-1, and NCEP-2 Reanalyses and CMAP-1, CMAP-2, and GPCP-2 with ground-based measurements in China. J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 14, D09105. doi: 10.1029/2008JD011178
[35] Moberg, A., P. D. Jones, D. Lister, et al., 2006: Indices for daily temperature and precipitation extremes in Europe analyzed for the period 1901–2000. J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 111, D22106. doi: 10.1029/2006JD007103
[36] Piao, S. L., P. Ciais, Y. Huang, et al., 2010: The impacts of climate change on water resources and agriculture in China. Nature, 467, 43–51. doi: 10.1038/nature09364
[37] Rasmussen, R., B. Baker, J. Kochendorfer, et al., 2012: How well are we measuring snow: The NOAA/FAA/NCAR winter precipitation test bed. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 93, 811–829. doi: 10.1175/BAMS-D-11-00052.1
[38] Reichle, R. H., Q. Liu, R. D. Koster, et al., 2017: Land surface precipitation in MERRA-2. J. Climate, 30, 1643–1664. doi: 10.1175/JCLI-D-16-0570.1
[39] Rudolf, B., A. Becker, U. Schneider, et al., 2010: The new “GPCC Full Data Reanalysis Version 5” providing high-quality gridded monthly precipitation data for the global land-surface is public available since December 2010. GPCC Status Report December 2010, GPCC, DWD, Germany, 1–7. Available online at https://www.dwd.de/EN/ourservices/gpcc/reports_publications/GPCC_status_report_2010.html?nn=495490. Accessed online 18 February 2020.
[40] Saha, S., S. Moorthi, H. L. Pan, et al., 2010: The NCEP climate forecast system reanalysis. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 91, 1015–1057. doi: 10.1175/2010BAMS3001.1
[41] Shen, Y., A. Y. Xiong, Y. Wang, et al., 2010: Performance of high-resolution satellite precipitation products over China. J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 115, D02114. doi: 10.1029/2009JD012097
[42] Sillmann, J., V. V. Kharin, X. Zhang, et al., 2013: Climate extremes indices in the CMIP5 multimodel ensemble: Part 1. Model evaluation in the present climate. J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 118, 1716–1733. doi: 10.1002/jgrd.50203
[43] Su, Z. X., S. H. Lyu, and S. W. Luo, 1999: The examinations and analysis of NCEP/NCAR 40 years global reanalysis data in China. Plateau Meteor., 18, 209–218. (in Chinese)
[44] Sun, Q. H., C. Y. Miao, Q. Y. Duan, et al., 2014: Would the ‘real’ observed dataset stand up? A critical examination of eight observed gridded climate datasets for China. Environ. Res. Lett., 9, 015001. doi: 10.1088/1748-9326/9/1/015001
[45] Trenberth, K. E., 1991: Climate diagnostics from global analyses: Conservation of mass in ECMWF analyses. J. Climate, 4, 707–722. doi: 10.1175/1520-0442(1991)004<0707:CDFGAC>2.0.CO;2
[46] Trenberth, K. E., and C. J. Guillemot, 1998: Evaluation of the atmospheric moisture and hydrological cycle in the NCEP/NCAR reanalyses. Climate Dyn., 14, 213–231. doi: 10.1007/s003820050219
[47] Varis, O., and P. Vakkilainen, 2001: China’s 8 challenges to water resources management in the first quarter of the 21st century. Geomorphology, 41, 93–104. doi: 10.1016/S0169-555X(01)00107-6
[48] Wang, A. H., and X. B. Zeng, 2012: Evaluation of multi-reanaly-sis products with in situ observations over the Tibetan Plateau. J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 117, D05102. doi: 10.1029/2011JD016553
[49] Xie, P. P., A. Yatagai, M. Y. Chen, et al., 2007: A gauge-based analysis of daily precipitation over East Asia. J. Hydrometeor., 8, 607–626. doi: 10.1175/JHM583.1
[50] Xie, P. P., M. Chen, and W. Shi, 2010: CPC unified gauge-based analysis of global daily precipitation. Proceedings of the 24th Conference on Hydrology, Atlanta, GA, American Meteorological Society.
[51] Yin, H., M. G. Donat, L. V. Alexander, et al., 2015: Multi-dataset comparison of gridded observed temperature and precipitation extremes over China. Int. J. Climatol., 35, 2809–2827. doi: 10.1002/joc.4174
[52] Zhai, P. M., X. B. Zhang, H. Wan, et al., 2005: Trends in total precipitation and frequency of daily precipitation extremes over China. J. Climate, 18, 1096–1108. doi: 10.1175/JCLI-3318.1
[53] Zhang, X. B., L. Alexander, G. C. Hegerl, et al., 2011: Indices for monitoring changes in extremes based on daily temperature and precipitation data. WIREs Climate Change, 2, 851–870. doi: 10.1002/wcc.147
[54] Zhao, T. B., and C. B. Fu, 2006: Preliminary comparison and analysis between ERA-40, NCEP-2 reanalysis and observations over China. Climatic Environ. Res., 11, 14–32. (in Chinese) doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-9585.2006.01.002
[55] Zhao, T. B., and A. Yatagai, 2014: Evaluation of TRMM 3B42 product using a new gauge-based analysis of daily precipitation over China. Int. J. Climatol., 34, 2749–2762. doi: 10.1002/joc.3872
[56] Zhou, T. J., 2003: Comparison of the global air–sea freshwater exchange evaluated from independent datasets. Prog. Nat. Sci., 13, 626–631. doi: 10.1080/10020070312331344150
[57] Zhou, X. X., Y. H. Ding, and P. X. Wang, 2010: Moisture transport in the Asian summer monsoon region and its relationship with summer precipitation in China. Acta Meteor. Sinica, 24, 31–42.