[1] Anthes, R. A., 1982: Tropical Cyclones: Their Evolution, Structure and Effects. American Meteorological Society, Boston, MA, 208 pp, doi: 10.1007/978-1-935704-28-7.
[2] Cao, X., T. Li, M. Peng, et al., 2014: Effects of monsoon trough intraseasonal oscillation on tropical cyclogenesis over the western North Pacific. J. Atmos. Sci., 71, 4639–4660. doi: 10.1175/JAS-D-13-0407.1
[3] Chambers, C. R. S., and T. Li, 2007: Simulation of formation of a near-equatorial typhoon Vamei (2001). Meteor. Atmos. Phys., 98, 67–80. doi: 10.1007/s00703-006-0229-0
[4] Chang, C. P., and T. S. Wong, 2008: Rare typhoon development near the equator. Recent Progress in Atmospheric Sciences: Applications to the Asia–Pacific Region, K. N. Liou, M. D. Chou, and H. H. Hsu, Eds., World Scientific, Singapore, 172–181, doi: 10.1142/9789812818911_0010.
[5] Chang, C. P., C. H. Liu, and H. C. Kuo, 2003: Typhoon Vamei: An equatorial tropical cyclone formation. Geophys. Res. Lett., 30, 1150. doi: 10.1029/2002GL016365
[6] Davis, C., W. Wang, S. S. Chen, et al., 2008: Prediction of landfalling hurricanes with the Advanced Hurricane WRF model. Mon. Wea. Rev., 136, 1990–2005. doi: 10.1175/2007MWR2085.1
[7] Deng, L. Y., T. Li, M. Y. Bi, et al., 2018: Dependence of tropical cyclone development on Coriolis parameter: A theoretical model. Dyn. Atmos. Oceans, 81, 51–62. doi: 10.1016/j.dynatmoce.2017.12.001
[8] Dickinson, M., and J. Molinari, 2002: Mixed Rossby–gravity waves and western Pacific tropical cyclogenesis. Part I: Synoptic evolution. J. Atmos. Sci., 59, 2183–2196. doi: 10.1175/1520-0469(2002)059<2183:MRGWAW>2.0.CO;2
[9] Emanuel, K. A., 2000: A statistical analysis of tropical cyclone intensity. Mon. Wea. Rev., 128, 1139–1152. doi: 10.1175/1520-0493(2000)128<1139:asaotc>2.0.co;2
[10] Emanuel, K. A., and D. S. Nolan, 2004: Tropical cyclone activity and the global climate system. Proceedings of the 26th Conference on Hurricanes and Tropical Meteorology, Miami, FL, American Meteorological Society, 240–241.
[11] Fortner Jr, C. L. E., 1958: Typhoon Sarah, 1956. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 39, 633–639. doi: 10.1175/1520-0477-39.12.633
[12] Fu, B., T. Li, M. S. Peng, et al., 2007: Analysis of tropical cyclogenesis in the western North Pacific for 2000 and 2001. Wea. Forecasting, 22, 763–780. doi: 10.1175/waf1013.1
[13] Ge, X. Y., T. Li, and M. S. Peng, 2013: Tropical cyclone genesis efficiency: Mid-level versus bottom vortex. J. Trop. Meteor., 19, 197–213. doi: 10.1175/JCLI-D-12-00548.1
[14] Gray, W. M., 1968: Global view of the origin of tropical disturbances and storms. Mon. Wea. Rev., 96, 669–700. doi: 10.1175/1520-0493(1968)096<0669:GVOTOO>2.0.CO;2
[15] Holliday, C. R., and A. H. Thompson, 1986: An unusual near-equatorial typhoon. Mon. Wea. Rev., 114, 2674–2677. doi: 10.1175/1520-0493(1986)114<2674:AUNET>2.0.CO;2
[16] Hong, S.-Y., Y. Noh, and J. Dudhia, 2006: A new vertical diffusion package with an explicit treatment of entrainment processes. Mon. Wea. Rev., 134, 2318–2341. doi: 10.1175/MWR3199.1
[17] Hsiao, L. F., D. S. Chen, Y. H. Kuo, et al., 2012: Application of WRF 3DVAR to operational typhoon prediction in Taiwan: Impact of outer loop and partial cycling approaches. Wea. Forecasting, 27, 1249–1263. doi: 10.1175/WAF-D-11-00131.1
[18] Juneng, L., F. T. Tangang, C. J. C. Reason, et al., 2007: Simulation of tropical cyclone Vamei (2001) using the PSU/NCAR MM5 model. Meteor. Atmos. Phys., 97, 273–290. doi: 10.1007/s00703-007-0259-2
[19] Kain, J. S., and J. M. Fritsch, 1993: Convective parameterization for mesoscale models: The Kain–Fritsch scheme. The Representation of Cumulus Convection in Numerical Models, K. A. Emanuel, and D. J. Raymond, Eds., American Meteorological Society, Boston, MA, 165–170, doi: 10.1007/978-1-935704-13-3_16.
[20] Kalnay, E., M. Kanamitsu, R. Kistler, et al., 1996: The NCEP/NCAR 40-year reanalysis project. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 77, 437–471. doi: 10.1175/1520-0477(1996)077<0437:TNYRP>2.0.CO;2
[21] Knapp, K. R., M. C. Kruk, D. H. Levinson, et al., 2010: The international best track archive for climate stewardship (IBTrACS): Unifying tropical cyclone data. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 91, 363–376. doi: 10.1175/2009BAMS2755.1
[22] Koseki, S., T. Y. Koh, and C. K. Teo, 2014: Borneo vortex and mesoscale convective rainfall. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 4539–4562. doi: 10.5194/acp-14-4539-2014
[23] Kuo, H.-C., J.-H. Chen, R. T. Williams, et al., 2001: Rossby waves in zonally opposing mean flow: Behavior in Northwest Pacific summer monsoon. J. Atmos. Sci., 58, 1035–1050. doi: 10.1175/1520-0469(2001)058<1035:rwizom>2.0.co;2
[24] Li, T., 2012: Synoptic and climatic aspects of tropical cyclogenesis in western North Pacific. Cyclones: Formation, Triggers and Control, K. Oouchi, and H. Fudeyasu, Eds., Nova Science Publishers, Inc, Hauppauge, 61–94.
[25] Li, T., and P. C. Hsu, 2018: Tropical cyclone formation. Fundamentals of Tropical Climate Dynamics, T. Li, and P. C. Hsu, Eds., Springer, Cham, 107–147, doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-59597-9_4.
[26] Li, T., X. Y. Ge, M. Peng, et al., 2012: Dependence of tropical cyclone intensification on the Coriolis parameter. Tropical Cyclone Research and Review, 1, 242–253. doi: 10.6057/2012TCRR02.04
[27] Li, Y., T. Li, C. F. Fu, et al., 2019: Near-equatorial tropical cyclone formation in western North Pacific: Peak season and controlling parameter. Climate Dyn., 52, 2765–2773. doi: 10.1007/s00382-018-4291-3
[28] Li, Z., W. D. Yu, T. Li, et al., 2013: Bimodal character of cyclone climatology in the Bay of Bengal modulated by monsoon seasonal cycle. J. Climate, 26, 1033–1046. doi: 10.1175/jcli-d-11-00627.1
[29] Lin, Y. L., R. D. Farley, and H. D. Orville, 1983: Bulk parameterization of the snow field in a cloud model. J. Climate Appl. Meteor., 22, 1065–1092. doi: 10.1175/1520-0450(1983)022<1065:BPOTSF>2.0.CO;2
[30] Liu, G. R., C. C. Liu, C. S. Huang, et al., 2010: Diagnosing the growth of equatorial Typhoon Vamei (2001) from an energy standpoint. Terr. Atmos. Ocean Sci., 21, 817–827. doi: 10.3319/TAO.2009.12.03.01(A)
[31] McBride, J. L., 1995: Tropical cyclone formation. Global Perspectives on Tropical Cyclone, R. L. Elsberry, Ed., World Meteorological Organization, Geneva, Switzerland, 63–105.
[32] Montgomery, M. T., M. E. Nicholls, T. A. Cram, et al., 2006: A vortical hot tower route to tropical cyclogenesis. J. Atmos. Sci., 63, 355–386. doi: 10.1175/jas3604.1
[33] Schecter, D. A., and D. H. E. Dubin, 1999: Vortex motion driven by a background vorticity gradient. Phys. Rev. Lett., 83, 2191–2194. doi: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.83.2191
[34] Tam, C.-Y. and T. Li, 2006: The origin and dispersion characteristics of the observed tropical summertime synoptic-scale waves over the western Pacific. Mon. Wea. Rev., 134, 1630–1646. doi: 10.1175/mwr3147.1
[35] Tory, K. J., M. T. Montgomery, and N. E. Davidson, 2006: Prediction and diagnosis of tropical cyclone formation in an NWP system. Part I: The critical role of vortex enhancement in deep convection. J. Atmos. Sci., 63, 3077–3090. doi: 10.1175/JAS3764.1
[36] Yi, B. Q., and Q. H. Zhang, 2010: Near-equatorial typhoon development: Climatology and numerical simulations. Adv. Atmos. Sci., 27, 1014–1024. doi: 10.1007/s00376-009-9033-3