Predictability of the Western North Pacific Subtropical High Associated with Different ENSO Phases in GloSea5


  • The western North Pacific subtropical high (WNPSH) dominates the summer climate over East Asia. The intensity, position, and shape of WNPSH influence the spatiotemporal distributions of precipitation, temperature, and tropical cyclone activities in this region. This paper intends to investigate the performance of the UK Met Office Global Seasonal forecast system version 5 (GloSea5) in simulation/prediction of the WNPSH based on a hindcast dataset. Analyses of the hindcast data show a systematic bias in the mean circulation over West Pacific, with negative geopotential height anomalies over the western North Pacific (WNP) and cyclonic anomalies in the 850-hPa winds and water vapor transport, indicating a weakening and eastward shift of the WNPSH. Despite the model’s bias in the climatology, it well captured the interannual variability of the monthly and seasonal-mean intensity of the WNPSH and the position of its ridge line in boreal summer from 1993 to 2015. The seasonal hindcasts indicate that there is significant prediction skill at up to three-month lead time for both the intensity and position of the WNPSH ridge line. The relationship between the WNPSH and different phases of the El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) in both the observational data and GloSea5 hindcasts was then investigated. The model captured the summer WNPSH anomalies well during most of the ENSO phases, except in the La Niña decaying and neutral summers. The intensity of the anticyclone in the WNP is weak in the decaying phase of El Niño in the GloSea5 hindcasts compared with the reanalysis data. GloSea5 is capable of representing the lagged teleconnection between El Niño events in the previous winter and the intensity of the WNPSH in the following summer. Regression analysis reveals weakened negative sea surface temperature anomalies (SSTAs) over the WNP in GloSea5, which reduced the gradient between the tropical western Pacific and the tropical Indian Ocean, resulting in a weaker easterly anomaly and stronger westerly anomaly, contributing to the weak anomalous anticyclone over the WNP and the weakened WNPSH relative to the reanalysis data.
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