[1] Ai, Y. F., W. B. Li, Z. Y. Meng, et al., 2016: Life cycle characteristics of MCSs in Middle East China tracked by geostationary satellite and precipitation estimates. Mon. Wea. Rev., 144, 2517–2530. doi: 10.1175/MWR-D-15-0197.1
[2] Bai, L. Q., Z. Y. Meng, L. Huang, et al., 2017: An integrated damage, visual, and radar analysis of the 2015 Foshan, Guangdong, EF3 tornado in China produced by the landfalling Typhoon Mujigae (2015). Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 98, 2619–2640. doi: 10.1175/BAMS-D-16-0015.1
[3] Benjamin, S. G., J. M. Brown, G. Brunet, et al., 2018: 100 years of progress in forecasting and NWP applications. Meteor. Mo-nogr., 59, 13.1–13.67. doi: 10.1175/AMSMONOGRAPHS-D-18-0020.1
[4] Bluestein, H. B., and M. H. Jain, 1985: Formation of mesoscale lines of precipitation: Severe squall lines in Oklahoma during the spring. J. Atmos. Sci., 42, 1711–1732. doi: 10.1175/1520-0469(1985)042<1711:FOMLOP>2.0.CO;2
[5] Brooks, H. E., C. A. Doswell, X. L. Zhang, et al., 2019: A century of progress in severe convective storm research and forecasting. Meteor. Monogr., 59, 18.1–18.41. doi: 10.1175/AMSMONOGRAPHS-D-18-0026.1
[6] Cai, Z. Y., H. Z. Li, and H. A. Li, 1988: Structure and evolution of squall line systems in North China. Scientia Atmos. Sinica, 12, 191–199. (in Chinese) doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.1988.02.11
[7] Cao, C. Y., Y. Z. Chen, D. H. Liu, et al., 2015: The optical flow method and its application to nowcasting. Acta Meteor. Sinica, 73, 471–480. (in Chinese) doi: 10.11676/qxxb2015.034
[8] Cao, Z.-Q., Q.-N. Huang, and S.-R. Zhao, 2013: Using satellite data to analyze the initiation and evolution of deep convective clouds. Atmos. Ocean. Sci. Lett., 6, 445–450. doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1674-2834.13.0007
[9] Chen, J. Q., 1984: Analysis of strong hail environment field in Beijing–Tianjin area. Acta Meteor. Sinica, 42, 375–381. (in Chinese) doi: 10.11676/qxxb1984.044
[10] Chen, J., Y. G. Zheng, X. L. Zhang, et al., 2013: Distribution and diurnal variation of warm-season short-duration heavy rainfall in relation to the MCSs in China. Acta Meteor. Sinica, 27, 868–888. doi: 10.1007/s13351-013-0605-x
[11] Chen, J. Y., X. H. Cai, H. Y. Wang, et al., 2018: Tornado climatology of China. Int. J. Climatol., 38, 2478–2489. doi: 10.1002/joc.5369
[12] Chen, L. D., 1979: Investigation of the structure and formation mechanism of arc-shaped radar echo related with hail cloud. Meteor. Mon., 5, 6–11. (in Chinese) doi: 10.7519/j.issn.1000-0526.1979.06.003
[13] Chen, M. X., Y. C. Wang, and X. D. Yu, 2007: Improvement and application test of TREC algorithm for convective storm nowcast. J. Appl. Meteor. Sci., 18, 690–701. (in Chinese) doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1001-7313.2007.05.014
[14] Chen, M. X., F. Gao, R. Kong, et al., 2010: Introduction of auto-nowcasting system for convective storm and its performance in Beijing Olympics meteorological service. J. Appl. Meteor. Sci., 21, 395–404. (in Chinese) doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1001-7313.2010.04.002
[15] Chen, M. X., S. Y. Fan, Z. F. Zheng, et al., 2011: The performance of the proximity sounding based on the BJ-RUC system and its preliminary implementation in the convective potential forecast. Acta Meteor. Sinica, 69, 181–194. (in Chinese) doi: 10.11676/qxxb2011.016
[16] Chen, M. X., F. Gao, J. Z. Sun, et al., 2016: An analysis system using rapid-updating 4-D variational radar data assimilation based on VDRAS. J. Appl. Meteor. Sci., 27, 257–272. (in Chinese) doi: 10.11898/1001-7313.20160301
[17] Chen, Z.-T., Y.-Y. Huang, Q.-L. Wan, et al., 2010: Rapid updating cycle assimilation and forecasting system and its experiments and analysis in flood seasons. J. Trop. Meteor., 26, 49–54. (in Chinese) doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1004-4965.2010.01.007
[18] Cheng, C. L., M. X. Chen, J. J. Wang, et al., 2013: Short-term quantitative precipitation forecast experiments based on blending of nowcasting with numerical weather prediction. Acta Meteor. Sinica, 71, 397–415. (in Chinese) doi: 10.11676/qxxb2013.041
[19] China Meteorological Administration, 2004: Tentative Measures for Issuing Warnings of Abrupt Weather Disasters. Administrative Order No. 206. Available at http://www.cma.gov.cn/2011zwxx/2011zflfg/2011zgfxwj/201110/t20111027_134927.html. Accessed on 6 August 2020. (in Chinese)
[20] China Meteorological Administration, 2007: Meteorological Disaster Warning Information Delivery and Communication Measures. Administrative Order No. 16. Available at http://www.gov.cn/zhengce/2007-06/28/content_2602977.htm. Accessed on 6 August 2020. (in Chinese)
[21] Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences, China Meteorological Administration, 1959: Supplementary forecasting in weather stations—A new method of weather forecasting. Acta Meteor. Sinica, 30, 64–71. (in Chinese) doi: 10.11676/qxxb1959.010
[22] Chu, H., L. Chen, J. H. Dai, et al., 2017: Aspects on seamless weather forecast technologies for Shanghai city. Adv. Meteor. Sci. Technol., 7, 59–66. (in Chinese) doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-1973.2017.06.007
[23] Clark, A. J., and M. C. Coniglio, 2014: Lessons learned from 10 years of evaluating convection-allowing models in the HWT. End of 2014 Warn-on-Forecast and High-Impact Weather Workshop, Norman, OK, USA. Available online at https://www.nssl.noaa.gov/projects/wof/documents/workshop2014/. Accessed on 7 August 2020.
[24] Clark, A. J., S. J. Weiss, J. S. Kain, et al., 2012: An overview of the 2010 hazardous weather testbed experimental forecast program spring experiment. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 93, 55–74. doi: 10.1175/bams-d-11-00040.1
[25] Clark, A. J., J. D. Gao, P. T. Marsh, et al., 2013: Tornado pathlength forecasts from 2010 to 2011 using ensemble updraft helicity. Wea. Forecasting, 28, 387–407. doi: 10.1175/waf-d-12-00038.1
[26] Ding, Y. H., 1978: Analysis and forecasting of severe convective weather. Meteor. Mon., 4, 15–17. (in Chinese) doi: 10.7519/j.issn.1000-0526.1978.05.007
[27] Ding, Y. H., 2015: On the study of the unprecedented heavy rainfall in Henan Province during 4–8 August 1975: Review and assessment. Acta Meteor. Sinica, 73, 411–424. (in Chinese) doi: 10.11676/qxxb2015.067
[28] Ding, Y.-H., M.-L. Zhang, H.-Z. Li, et al., 1981: A comparative study on the occurrence conditions of heavy rainfall and severe convective weather. Scientia Atmos. Sinica, 5, 388–397. (in Chinese) doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.1981.04.05
[29] Ding, Y.-H., H.-Z. Li, M.-L. Zhang, et al., 1982: A study on the genesis conditions of squall-line in China. Scientia Atmos. Sinica, 6, 18–27. (in Chinese) doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.1982.01.03
[30] Doswell III, C. A., H. E. Brooks, and R. A. Maddox, 1996: Flash flood forecasting: An ingredients-based methodology. Wea. Forecasting, 11, 560–581. doi: 10.1175/1520-0434(1996)011<0560:FFFAIB>2.0.CO;2
[31] Du, M. Y., L. P. Liu, Z. Q. Hu, et al., 2013: An analysis of dual-linear polarimetric Doppler radar data quality. Acta Meteor. Sinica, 71, 146–158. (in Chinese) doi: 10.11676/qxxb2013.01
[32] Fan, S.-Y., M. Chen, J.-Q. Zhong, et al., 2009: Performance tests and evaluations of Beijing local high-resolution rapid update cycle system. Torr. Rain Disas., 28, 119–125. (in Chinese) doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1004-9045.2009.02.004
[33] Fan, W. J., and X. D. Yu, 2015: Characteristics of spatial–tempo-ral distribution of tornadoes in China. Meteor. Mon., 41, 793–805. (in Chinese) doi: 10.7519/j.issn.1000-0526.2015.07.001
[34] Fang, Z. Y., and D. Y. Qin, 2006: A review of satellite observed heavy rainfall cloud clusters. J. Appl. Meteor. Sci., 17, 583–593. (in Chinese) doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1001-7313.2006.05.008
[35] Fang, Z. Y., J. M. Xu, and. F. S. Zhao, 2006: Review and development on the studies of Chinese meteorological satellite and satellite meteorology. Acta Meteor. Sinica, 20, 259–274.
[36] Fei, Z. P., Y. G. Zheng, Y. Zhang, et al., 2008: MCS census and modification of MCS definition based on geostationary satellite infrared imagery. J. Appl. Meteor. Sci., 19, 82–90. (in Chinese) doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1001-7313.2008.01.011
[37] Fujita, T., 1955: Results of detailed synoptic studies of squall lines. Tellus, 7, 405–436. doi: 10.3402/tellusa.v7i4.8920
[38] Fujita, T. T., 1960: A Detailed Analysis of the Fargo Tornadoes of June 20, 1957. U.S. Wea. Bur. Res. Paper 42, U. S. Wea. Bur. Res., Washington, 67 pp.
[39] Gallo, B. T., A. J. Clark, and S. R. Dembek, 2016: Forecasting tornadoes using convection-permitting ensembles. Wea. Forecasting, 31, 273–295. doi: 10.1175/WAF-D-15-0134.1
[40] Ge, R. S., 1966: Radar features analysis of hailstorm events in Beijing in 1964. Acta Meteor. Sinica, 36, 213–222. (in Chinese) doi: 10.11676/qxxb1966.027
[41] Ge, R. S., 1979: A tornado process in Beijing. Meteor. Mon., 5, 33–34. (in Chinese) doi: 10.7519/j.issn.1000-0526.1979.11.014
[42] Ge, R. S., 1980: Radar echo characteristics of hailstorm cloud and its identification method. Meteor. Mon., 6, 19–20. (in Chinese) doi: 10.7519/j.issn.1000-0526.1980.05.008
[43] Ge, R. S., 1982: Lesson one—Weather radar. Meteor. Mon., 8, 33–35. (in Chinese) doi: 10.7519/j.issn.1000-0526.1982.05.017
[44] Guo, X. K., and X. L. Guo, 2016: Preliminary application of product from dual polarization radar in Qingyuan. Guangdong Meteor., 38, 45–48. (in Chinese) doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1007-6190.2016.05.011
[45] Han, F., and W. F. Wo, 2018: Design and implementation of SWAN2.0 platform. J. Appl. Meteor. Sci., 29, 25–34. (in Chinese) doi: 10.11898/1001-7313.20180103
[46] Hu, Z. Q., L. P. Liu, L. L. Wu, et al., 2015: A comparison of de-noising methods for differential phase shift and associated rainfall estimation. J. Meteor. Res., 29, 315–327. doi: 10.1007/s13351-015-4062-6
[47] Huang, L. P., D. H. Chen, L. T. Deng, et al., 2017: Main technical improvements of GRAPES_Meso V4.0 and verification. J. Appl. Meteor. Sci., 28, 25–37. (in Chinese) doi: 10.11898/1001-7313.20170103
[48] Institute of Meteorology of Gansu Meteorological Bureau, 1975: Radar echo characteristics of hail cloud. Meteor. Mon., 1, 11–12. (in Chinese) doi: 10.7519/j.issn.1000-0526.1975.07.006
[49] Ji, Y. H., X. Z. Wu, B. Zhou, et al., 1996: Severe convective weather monitoring and nowcasting system. Meteor. Mon., 22, 20–23. (in Chinese)
[50] Jiang, J. X., and M. Z. Fan, 2002: Convective clouds and mesoscale convective systems over the Tibetan Plateau in summer. Chinese J. Atmos. Sci., 26, 263–270. (in Chinese) doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2002.02.12
[51] Jirak, I., 2014: SPC ensemble applications: Current status and future plans. Proc. Sixth NCEP Ensemble User Workshop, College Park, MD, USA. Available at https://www.emc.ncep.noaa.gov/gmb/ens/WkShopOct13/program/pdf/S2-01-Jirak_SPC.pdf. Accessed on 6 August 2020.
[52] Ke, F., 1976: Meso- and micro-scale weather systems (II). Meteor. Mon., 2, 38–40. (in Chinese) doi: 10.7519/j.issn.1000-0526.1976.09.026
[53] Klein, B., L. Wolf, and Y. Afek, 2015: A dynamic convolutional layer for short-range weather prediction. Proc. 2015 IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR), IEEE, Boston, 4840–4848, doi: 10.1109/CVPR.2015.7299117.
[54] Lei, X., 1976a: Detection of hail cloud using weather radars. Meteor. Mon., 2, 24–25. (in Chinese) doi: 10.7519/j.issn.1000-0526.1976.07.019
[55] Lei, X., 1976b: Short-range forecasting of hail. Meteor. Mon., 2, 27–28. (in Chinese) doi: 10.7519/j.issn.1000-0526.1976.05.022
[56] Lei, Y. S., 1980: Some aspects of severe convective storms. Scientia Atmos. Sinica, 4, 94–102. (in Chinese) doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.1980.01.12
[57] Lei, Y. S., B. J. Wu, and Z. H. Wu, 1978: A method for analyzing and forecasting the local severe storms in summer using the theory of instability energy. Scientia Atmos. Sinica, 2, 297–306. (in Chinese) doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.1978.04.04
[58] Li, C. L., K. L. Cai, X. X. Huang, et al., 2018: Characteristics and warning of Foshan tornado on the periphery of typhoon No. 1822. Guangdong Meteor., 40, 41–44. (in Chinese)
[59] Li, J., and Z. Y. Fang, 2012: The development of satellite meteorology—Challenges and opportunities. Meteor. Mon., 38, 129–146. (in Chinese)
[60] Li, P.-W., W.-K. Wong, P. Cheung, et al., 2014: An overview of nowcasting development, applications, and services in the Hong Kong Observatory. J. Meteor. Res., 28, 859–876. doi: 10.1007/s13351-014-4048-9
[61] Li, X. F., Q. H. Zhang, T. Zou, et al., 2018: Climatology of hail frequency and size in China, 1980–2015. J. Appl. Meteor. Climatol., 57, 875–887. doi: 10.1175/JAMC-D-17-0208.1
[62] Li, Y. L., 1978: (VI) Analysis of weather systems over the Tibetan Plateau based on satellite cloud images. Meteor. Mon., 4, 10–12. (in Chinese) doi: 10.7519/j.issn.1000-0526.1978.04.005
[63] Liang, Q. Q., Y. R. Feng, W. J. Deng, et al., 2010: A composite approach of radar echo extrapolation based on TREC vectors in combination with model-predicted winds. Adv. Atmos. Sci., 27, 1119–1130. doi: 10.1007/s00376-009-9093-4
[64] Lin, Y. H., 1979: An analysis of the heavy rainstorm of “May 1977” using radar echo and mesoscale systems. Acta Scient. Natural. Univ. Sunyat., 18, 123–130. (in Chinese)
[65] Liu, J., and J. Y. Jiang, 2013: Using FY-2C high temporal resolution regional scan data to monitor strong convective cloud. Chinese J. Atmos. Sci., 37, 873–880. (in Chinese) doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2012.12062
[66] Liu, L., M. X. Chen, and Y. C. Wang, 2016: Numerical nowcasting experiments for the simulation of a mesoscale convective system using a cloud model and radar data assimilation with 4DVar. Acta Meteor. Sinica, 74, 213–228. (in Chinese) doi: 10.11676/qxxb2016.021
[67] Liu, L. P., and R. S. Ge, 2006: An overview on radar meteorology research in Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences for a half century. J. Appl. Meteor. Sci., 17, 682–689. (in Chinese) doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1001-7313.2006.06.006
[68] Liu, L.-P., Y.-Q. Mo, X.-S. Sha, et al., 2005: Radar data processing and a variational algorithm for 3-dimensional wind field retrieval by C-Band Bistatic Radar Network. Chinese J. Atmos. Sci., 29, 986–996. (in Chinese) doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2005.06.14
[69] Liu, L.-P., J.-W. Cao, Y.-Q. Mo, et al., 2006: Advanced radar technology and application on observation of disaster weathers. J. Trop. Meteor., 22, 1–9. (in Chinese) doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1004-4965.2006.01.001
[70] Liu, L. P., Z. Q. Hu, and C. Wu, 2016: Development and application of dual linear polarization radar and phased-array radar. Adv. Meteor. Sci. Technol., 6, 28–33. (in Chinese)
[71] Liu, Z. J., M. Min, J. Li, et al., 2019: Local severe storm tracking and warning in pre-convection stage from the new generation geostationary weather satellite measurements. Remote Sens., 11, 383. doi: 10.3390/rs11040383
[72] Lu, F., X. H. Zhang, H. Liu, et al., 2017: FY-4 geostationary meteorological satellite imaging characteristics and its application prospects. J. Mar. Meteor., 37, 1–12. (in Chinese) doi: 10.19513/j.cnki.issn2096-3599.2017.02.001
[73] Lu, J. L., and F. W. Liu, 1983: Establishing weather joint radar net-work and short-term weather forecasting. Meteor. Mon., 9, 13–14. (in Chinese) doi: 10.7519/j.issn.1000-0526.1983.06.004
[74] Lu, W., 1935a: The movement of cold and warm airflows and a squall line on 10 June 1931. Acta Meteor. Sinica, 11, 10–23. (in Chinese) doi: 10.11676/qxxb1935.003
[75] Lu, W., 1935b: The convective storm over the Yangtze River valley on 23 June 1935. Acta Meteor. Sinica, 11, 167–178. (in Chinese) doi: 10.11676/qxxb1935.024
[76] Lu, W., 1935c: The cold current and squall line in the early May of 1935. Acta Meteor. Sinica, 11, 217–228. (in Chinese) doi: 10.11676/qxxb1935.032
[77] Lu, W., 1938a: The distribution of the number of thunderstorms in eastern China. Acta Meteor. Sinica, 146–151. (in Chinese) doi: 10.11676/qxxb1938.017
[78] Lu, W., 1938b: The spring thunderstorms of the Sichuan basin. Acta Meteor. Sinica, 219–226. (in Chinese) doi: 10.11676/qxxb1938.022
[79] Maddox, R. A., 1980: Mesoscale convective complexes. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 61, 1374–1387. doi: 10.1175/1520-0477(1980)061<1374:MCC>2.0.CO;2
[80] Maddox, R. A., 1983: Large-scale meteorological conditions associated with midlatitude, mesoscale convective complexes. Mon. Wea. Rev., 111, 1475–1493. doi: 10.1175/1520-0493(1983)111<1475:LSMCAW>2.0.CO;2
[81] Maddox, R. A., D. J. Perkey, and J. M. Fritsch, 1981: Evolution of upper tropospheric features during the development of a meso-scale convective complex. J. Atmos. Sci., 38, 1664–1674. doi: 1175/1520-0469(1981)038<1664:EOUTFD>2.0.CO;2
[82] Meng, Z. Y., and Y. J. Zhang, 2012: On the squall lines preceding landfalling tropical cyclones in China. Mon. Wea. Rev., 140, 445–470. doi: 10.1175/MWR-D-10-05080.1
[83] Meng, Z. Y., and D. Yao, 2014: Damage survey, radar, and environment analyses on the first-ever documented tornado in Beijing during the heavy rainfall event of 21 July 2012. Wea. Forecasting, 29, 702–724. doi: 10.1175/WAF-D-13-00052.1
[84] Meng, Z. Y., D. C. Yan, and Y. J. Zhang, 2013: General features of squall lines in east China. Mon. Wea. Rev., 141, 1629–1647. doi: 10.1175/mwr-d-12-00208.1
[85] Meng, Z. Y., D. Yao, L. Q. Bai, et al., 2016: Wind estimation around the shipwreck of the “Oriental Star” based on field damage survey and radar observations. Sci. Bull., 61, 330–337. doi: 10.1007/s11434-016-1005-2
[86] Meng, Z. Y., L. Q. Bai, M. R. Zhang, et al., 2018: The deadliest tornado (EF4) in the past 40 years in China. Wea. Forecasting, 33, 693–713. doi: 10.1175/WAF-D-17-0085.1
[87] Ni, Y.-Q., and X.-J. Zhou, 2006: Main scientific issues and achievements of State 973 Project on study for formation mechanism and prediction theories of severe weather disasters in China. Adv. Earth Sci., 21, 881–894. (in Chinese) doi: 10.3321/j.issn:1001-8166.2006.09.001
[88] Parker, M. D., and R. H. Johnson, 2000: Organizational modes of midlatitude mesoscale convective systems. Mon. Wea. Rev., 128, 3413–3436. doi: 10.1175/1520-0493(2001)129<3413:OMOMMC>2.0.CO;2
[89] Qin, D. Y., and Z. Y. Fang., 2014: Research progress of geostationary satellite-based convective initiation. Meteor. Mon., 40, 7–17. (in Chinese) doi: 10.7519/j.issn.1000-0526.2014.01.002
[90] Radar Team of Anhui Meteorological Observatory, 1975: Radar analysis of the 6.17 convective storm. Meteor. Mon., 1, 14–15. (in Chinese) doi: 10.7519/j.issn.1000-0526.1975.05.009
[91] Schumacher, R. S., and R. H. Johnson, 2005: Organization and environmental properties of extreme-rain-producing mesoscale convective systems. Mon. Wea. Rev., 133, 961–976. doi: 10.1175/mwr2899.1
[92] Shi, X. J., Z. R. Chen, H. Wang, et al., 2015: Convolutional LSTM network: A machine learning approach for precipitation nowcasting. Proc. Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems, Montreal, Quebec, 802–810. Available at https://arxiv.org/abs/1506.04214v2. Accessed on 5 August 2020.
[93] Sun, J. S., J. H. Dai, L. F. He, et al., 2014: Basic Principles and Technical Methods of Severe Convective Weather Prediction. China Meteorological Press, Beijing, 282 pp. (in Chinese)
[94] Tang, X. Z., 1990: A review of the nowcasting over the world. Quart. J. Appl. Meteor., 1, 93–99. (in Chinese)
[95] Tao, S. Y., 1977: The current status of weather forecasting technology. Meteor. Mon., 3, 26–29. (in Chinese) doi: 10.7519/j.issn.1000-0526.1977.01.022
[96] Tao, S. Y., 1980: Heavy Rainfalls in China. Science Press, Beijing, 225 pp. (in Chinese)
[97] Tao, S.-Y., and Y.-H. Ding, 1981: Observational evidence of the influence of the Qinghai-Xizang (Tibet) Plateau on the occurrence of heavy rain and severe convective storms in China. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 62, 23–30. doi: 10.1175/1520-0477(1981)062<0023:OEOTIO>2.0.CO;2
[98] Tao, S.-Y., Z.-Y. Fang., Y.-L. Li, et al., 1979: The application of the meteorological satellite data to weather analysis and forecating in China. Scientia Atmos. Sinica, 3, 239–246. (in Chinese) doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.1979.03.06
[99] Tian, F. Y., Y. G. Zheng, T. Zhang, et al., 2015: Sensitivity analy-sis of short-duration heavy rainfall related diagnostic parameters with point-area verification. J. Appl. Meteor. Sci., 26, 385–396. (in Chinese) doi: 10.11898/1001-7313.20150401
[100] Wang, A. S., and N. Z. Xu, 1983: Structure of severe hailstorm and its hail shooting. Scientia Atmos. Sinica, 7, 95–101. (in Chinese) doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.1983.01.11
[101] Wang, A. S., and N. Z. Xu, 1985: The studies of strong cell hailstorms. Scientia Atmos. Sinica, 9, 260–267. (in Chinese) doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.1985.03.06
[102] Wang, D. Z., 1965: Relationship between thunderstorm activity and convergence zone in spring warm area of Fujian Province. Acta Meteor. Sinica, 37, 316–327. (in Chinese) doi: 10.11676/qxxb1965.035
[103] Wang, L., 1996: Comments on the short-term forecast of severe convective weather by radar echo at Jiangxi Meteorological Observatory in 1995. Jiangxi Meteor. Sci. Technol., (3), 40–42. (in Chinese)
[104] Wang, P. L., 1964: A mean unstable energy index for convective forecasting. Acta Meteor. Sinica, 34, 209–303. (in Chinese) doi: 10.11676/qxxb1964.031
[105] Wang, X. F., and Y. H. Ding, 1994: Study on method of short-range forecast of severe convective weather in Beijing area. Scientia Atmos. Sinica, 18, 173–183. (in Chinese) doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.1994.02.05
[106] Wang, X. H., Y. Y. Zheng, M. J. Pu, et al., 2018: Design of the comprehensive severe weather alert and track platform and its application in tornado warning. Adv. Meteor. Sci. Technol., 8, 61–69. (in Chinese)
[107] Wang, X. M., X. D. Yu, and X. G. Zhou, 2015: Study of Northeast China tornadoes: The environmental characteristics. Acta Meteor. Sinica, 73, 425–441. (in Chinese) doi: 10.11676/qxxb2015.031
[108] Wang, Y. B., M. S. Long, J. M. Wang, et al., 2017: PredRNN: Recurrent neural networks for predictive learning using spatio-temporal LSTMs. Proc. Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems, Long Beach, California, USA, 879–888. Available at https://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/PredRNN%3A-Recurrent-Neural-Networks-for-Predictive-Wang-Long/566d9637c465e4dfc1c1695ecc7155adbb54f45c. Acces-sed on 5 August 2020.
[109] Wang, Y. B., Z. F. Gao, M. S. Long, et al., 2018: PredRNN++: Towards a resolution of the deep-in-time dilemma in spatiotemporal predictive learning. Proc. 35th International Conference on Machine Learning, PMLR, Stockholm, 5110–5119, Available at https://arxiv.org/pdf/1804.06300v2.pdf. Accessed on 6 August 2020.
[110] Wei, W. X., and Y. M. Zhao, 1995: The characteristics of tornadoes in China. Meteor. Mon., 21, 36–40. (in Chinese)
[111] Wen, K. G., 2004: Chinese Meteorological History. China Meteorological Press, Beijing, 902 pp. (in Chinese)
[112] Wheatley, D. M., K. H. Knopfmeier, T. A. Jones, et al., 2015: Storm-scale data assimilation and ensemble forecasting with the NSSL experimental warn-on-forecast system. Part I: Radar data experiments. Wea. Forecasting, 30, 1795–1817. doi: 10.1175/WAF-D-15-0043.1
[113] Wilson, J. W., N. A. Crook, C. K. Mueller, et al., 1998: Nowcasting thunderstorms: A status report. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 79, 2079–2100. doi: 10.1175/1520-0477(1998)079<2079:NTASR>2.0.CO;2
[114] Wolfson, M. M., W. J. Dupree, R. M. Rasmussen, et al., 2008: Consolidated storm prediction for aviation (CoSPA). Proc. 2008 Integrated Communications, Navigation and Surveillance Conference, IEEE, Bethesda, doi: 10.1109/ICNSURV.2008.4559190.
[115] Writing Group of “Pre-rainy Season Heavy Rainfall in South China,” 1986: The Heavy Rainfall in South China Pre-Rainy Season. Guangdong Science and Technology Press, Guangzhou, 230 pp. (in Chinese)
[116] Wu, C., L. P. Liu, M. Wei, et al., 2018: Statistics-based optimization of the polarimetric radar hydrometeor classification algorithm and its application for a squall line in South China. Adv. Atmos. Sci., 35, 296–316. doi: 10.1007/s00376-017-6241-0
[117] Wu, S. Z., 1938: The thunderstorms of China. Acta Meteor. Sinica, 131–145. (in Chinese) doi: 10.11676/qxxb1938.016
[118] Xiao, Y. J., and L. P. Liu, 2006: Study of methods for interpolating data from weather radar network to 3-D grid and mosaic. Acta Meteor. Sinica, 64, 647–657. (in Chinese) doi: 10.11676/qxxb2006.063
[119] Xiao, Y. J., L. P. Liu, and Y. Shi, 2008: Study of methods for three-dimensional multiple-radar reflectivity mosaics. Acta Meteor. Sinica, 22, 351–361.
[120] Xiao, Y. J., B. Wang, X. H. Chen, et al., 2012: Differential phase data quality control of mobile X-band dual-polarimetric Doppler weather radar. Plateau Meteor., 31, 223–230. (in Chinese) doi: 10.1007/s11783-011-0280-z
[121] Xie, B. G., Q. H. Zhang, and Y. Q. Wang, 2010: Observed characteristics of hail size in four regions in China during 1980–2005. J. Climate, 23, 4973–4982. doi: 10.1175/2010JCLI3600.1
[122] Xu, H. B., 2012: The Physics of Severe Convective Storms and Its Application. China Meteorological Press, Beijing, 340 pp. (in Chinese)
[123] Xu, X. F., 2003: Construction, techniques and application of new generation Doppler weather radar network in China. Eng. Sci., 5, 7–14. (in Chinese) doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1009-1742.2003.06.002
[124] Xu, X. N., 1982: Analysis of a cold front heavy rain over North China in summer. Scientia Atmos. Sinica, 6, 71–76. (in Chinese) doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.1982.01.10
[125] Xu, Y. M., X. C. Tang, and W. M., Xia, 1988: An objective me-thod for discrimination and short-term forecast of severe storms by using of weather radar. Scientia Atmos. Sinica, 12, 434–438. (in Chinese) doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.1988.04.14
[126] Xu, Z. F., M. Hao, L. J. Zhu, et al., 2013: On the research and development of GRAPES_RAFS. Meteor. Mon., 39, 466–477. (in Chinese) doi: 10.7519/j.issn.1000-0526.2013.04.009
[127] Xu, Z. X., and M. Y. Wang, 1965: Analysis of the weather process of the eastward moving troughs in the south branch of westerlies over the cushion of cold air in South China in spring. Acta Meteor. Sinica, 37, 117–125. doi: 10.11676/qxxb1965.014
[128] Xue, M., 2016: Preface to the special issue on the “Observation, Prediction and Analysis of Severe Convection of China” (OPACC) national “973” project. Adv. Atmos. Sci., 33, 1099–1101. doi: 10.1007/s00376-016-0002-3
[129] Yang, G. X., 1983: Meso- and Micro-Scale Weather Meteorology. China Meteorological Press, Beijing, 231 pp. (in Chinese)
[130] Yang, J., J. M. Xu, and C. H. Dong, 2011: 40th anniversary of Fengyun meteorological satellites: Evolution in view of the international development. Adv. Meteor. Sci. Technol., 1, 6–13, 24. (in Chinese)
[131] Yang, P.-C., and Y.-F. Guo, 1981: A preliminary analysis of hailstorm echo systems of the squall line type. Scientia Atmos. Sinica, 5, 85–91. (in Chinese) doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.1981.01.10
[132] Yang, P.-C., Y.-F. Guo, J.-L. Liu, et al., 1980: The classification of hailstorm systems in North China and the characteristics of the cells in the hailstorms. Scientia Atmos. Sinica, 4, 236–244. (in Chinese) doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.1980.03.05
[133] Yang, X. L., and J. H. Sun, 2018: Organizational modes of severe wind-producing convective systems over North China. Adv. Atmos. Sci., 35, 540–549. doi: 10.1007/s00376-017-7114-2
[134] Yang, X. L., J. H. Sun, and Y. G. Zheng, 2017: A 5-yr climatology of severe convective wind events over China. Wea. Forecasting, 32, 1289–1299. doi: 10.1175/WAF-D-16-0101.1
[135] Yang, Z. L., K. Zhao, K. Xu, et al., 2019: Microphysical characteristics of extreme convective precipitation over the Yangtze–Huaihe River basin during the Meiyu season based on polarimetric radar data. Acta Meteor. Sinica, 77, 58–72. (in Chinese) doi: 10.11676/qxxb2018.040
[136] Yao, D., Z. Y. Meng, and M. Xue, 2019: Genesis, maintenance and demise of a simulated tornado and the evolution of its preceding Descending Reflectivity Core (DRC). Atmosphere, 10, 236. doi: 10.3390/atmos10050236
[137] Yao, Y. Q., X. D. Yu, Y. J. Zhang, et al., 2015: Climate analysis of tornadoes in China. J. Meteor. Res., 29, 359–369. doi: 10.1007/s13351-015-4983-0
[138] Yao, Z. Q., and Y. Huang, 2000: The working flow of short-term forecast for severe convection in Shanghai. Meteor. Mon., 26, 15–18, 23. (in Chinese) doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-0526.2000.09.004
[139] You, J. Y., 1965a: Structure characteristics of the warm shear lines in North China. Acta Meteor. Sinica, 37, 107–110. (in Chinese) doi: 10.11676/qxxb1965.011
[140] You, J. Y., 1965b: Mesoscale systems in heavy rainfall belt. Acta Meteor. Sinica, 37, 293–304. (in Chinese) doi: 10.11676/qxxb1965.033
[141] Yu, X. D., and Y. G. Zheng, 2020: Advances in severe convection research and operation in China. J. Meteor. Res., 34, 189–217. doi: 10.1007/s13351-020-9875-2
[142] Yu, X. D., X. P. Yao, T. N. Xiong, et al., 2006: Doppler Weather Radar Principle and Business Applications. China Meteorological Press, Beijing, 11–12. (in Chinese)
[143] Yu, X. D., X. G. Zhou, and X. M. Wang, 2012: The advances in the nowcasting techniques on thunderstorms and severe convection. Acta Meteor. Sinica, 70, 311–337. (in Chinese) doi: 10.11676/qxxb2012.030
[144] Yu, Z. X., R. G. Wu, G. Q. Zhai, et al., 1985: The relationship between the boundary layer convergence and occurrence of hail weather in Zhejiang. Scientia Atmos. Sinica, 9, 268–275. (in Chinese) doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.1985.03.07
[145] Yunnan Meteorological Bureau, 1978: Great achievements in Zhenxiong weather station: A first-time weather forecasting at a county station. Meteor. Mon., 4, 1–2. (in Chinese) doi: 10.7519/j.issn.1000-0526.1978.10.001
[146] Zhang, B. C., G. X. Yang, Z. Y. Zhang, et al., 1986: Summary of mesoscale weather experiment in East China. Meteor. Mon., 12, 2–5. (in Chinese)
[147] Zhang, C. X., Q. H. Zhang, and Y. Q. Wang, 2008: Climatology of hail in China: 1961–2005. J. Appl. Meteor. Climatol., 47, 795–804. doi: 10.1175/2007JAMC1603.1
[148] Zhang, G. C., 2011: Severe Convective Weather Analysis and Forecast. China Meteorological Press, Beijing, 337 pp. (in Chinese)
[149] Zhang, G. F., V. N. Mahale, B. J. Putnam, et al., 2019: Current status and future challenges of weather radar polarimetry: Bridging the gap between radar meteorology/hydrology/engineering and numerical weather prediction. Adv. Atmos. Sci., 36, 571–588. doi: 10.1007/s00376-019-8172-4
[150] Zhang, J., M. Tian, K. Y. Zhu, et al., 2010: Analysis on the products and echo of dual-linear polarization Doppler wea-ther radar. Plateau Mountain Meteor. Res., 30, 36–41. (in Chinese) doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-2184.2010.02.008
[151] Zhang, P., Q. Guo, B. Y. Chen, et al., 2016: The Chinese next-generation geostationary meteorological satellite FY-4 compared with the Japanese Himawari-8/9 satellites. Adv. Meteor. Sci. Technol., 6, 72–75. (in Chinese)
[152] Zhang, X. L., S. Y. Tao, and J. H. Sun, 2010: Ingredients-based heavy rainfall forecasting. Chinese J. Atmos. Sci., 34, 754–766. (in Chinese) doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2010.04.08
[153] Zhang, X. L., Y. Chen, and T. Zhang, 2012: Meso-scale convective weather analysis and severe convective weather forecasting. Acta Meteor. Sinica, 70, 642–654. (in Chinese) doi: 10.11676/qxxb2012.052
[154] Zhang, X. L., B. Yang, W. J. Zhu, et al., 2016: Analysis of the EF4 tornado in Funing County, Jiangsu Province on 23 June 2016. Meteor. Mon., 42, 1304–1314. (in Chinese) doi: 10.7519/j.issn.1000-0526.2016.11.002
[155] Zhang, X. L., B. Yang, and J. Sheng, et al., 2018: Development of operations on forecasting severe convective weather in China. Adv. Meteor. Sci. Technol., 8, 8–18. (in Chinese)
[156] Zhang, X. L., Y. G. Zheng, and B. Yang, 2019: Severe Convective Weather Research and Forecasting Technology. China Meteorological Press, Beijing, 522 pp. (in Chinese)
[157] Zhang, Y., 1979: Progress of heavy rainfall research and forecast in China. Meteor. Mon., 5, 1–3. (in Chinese) doi: 10.7519/j.issn.1000-0526.1979.11.001
[158] Zhang, Y., 1982: Nowcasting and joint defense of severe storm. Meteor. Mon., 8, 2–4. (in Chinese) doi: 10.7519/j.issn.1000-0526.1982.02.001
[159] Zhang, Y., 1991: Recent progress on torrential rain in China. Adv. Water Sci., 2, 137–144. (in Chinese)
[160] Zhang, Y. P., M. H. Cheng, W. M. Xia, et al., 2006: Estimation of weather radar echo motion field and its application to precipitation nowcasting. Acta Meteor. Sinica, 64, 631–646. (in Chinese) doi: 10.11676/qxxb2006.062
[161] Zhao, B. L., and F. B. Xue, 1963: Mechanism of hail growth. Acta Meteor. Sinica, 33, 411–420. (in Chinese) doi: 10.11676/qxxb1963.044
[162] Zhao, K., H. Huang, M. J. Wang, et al., 2019: Recent progress in dual-polarization radar research and applications in China. Adv. Atmos. Sci., 36, 961–974. doi: 10.1007/s00376-019-9057-2
[163] Zhao, S. X., 1978: Characteristics of the satellite cloud images of extratropical cyclones. Meteor. Mon., 4, 11–12. (in Chinese) doi: 10.7519/j.issn.1000-0526.1978.02.009
[164] Zheng, L. L., J. H. Sun, X. L. Zhang, et al., 2013: Organizational modes of mesoscale convective systems over central East China. Wea. Forecasting, 28, 1081–1098. doi: 10.1175/WAF-D-12-00088.1
[165] Zheng, Y. G., and J. Chen, 2013: A climatology of deep convection over South China and the adjacent waters during summer. J. Trop. Meteor., 19, 1–15.
[166] Zheng, Y. G., Y. Chen, and P. J. Zhu, 2008: Climatological distribution and diurnal variation of mesoscale convective systems over China and its vicinity during summer. Chinese Sci. Bull., 53, 1574–1586. doi: 10.1007/s11434-008-0116-9
[167] Zheng, Y. G., Y. J. Lin, W. J. Zhu, et al., 2013: Operational system of severe convective weather comprehensive monitoring. Meteor. Mon., 39, 234–240. (in Chinese) doi: 10.7519/j.issn.1000-0526.2013.02.013
[168] Zheng, Y. G., M. Xue, and Z. Y. Tao, 2015: An overview of NOAA testbeds and spring experiment in the United States. Meteor. Mon., 41, 598–612. (in Chinese) doi: 10.7519/j.issn.1000-0526.2015.05.008
[169] Zheng, Y. G., F. Y. Tian, Z. Y. Meng, et al., 2016a: Survey and multi-scale characteristics of wind damage caused by convective storms in the surrounding area of the capsizing accident of cruise ship “Dongfangzhixing”. Meteor. Mon., 42, 1–13. (in Chinese) doi: 10.7519/j.issn.1000-0526.2016.01.001
[170] Zheng, Y. G., W. J. Zhu, D. Yao, et al., 2016b: Wind speed scales and rating of the intensity of the 23 June 2016 tornado in Funing county, Jiangsu Province. Meteor. Mon., 42, 1289–1303. (in Chinese) doi: 10.7519/j.issn.1000-0526.2016.11.001
[171] Zhou, K. H., Y. G. Zheng, B. Li, et al., 2019: Forecasting different types of convective weather: A deep learning approach. J. Meteor. Res., 33, 797–809. doi: 10.1007/s13351-019-8162-6
[172] Zhou, X. J., 1977: (I) Meteorological satellite. Meteor. Mon., 3, 12–13. (in Chinese) doi: 10.7519/j.issn.1000-0526.1977.07.005
[173] Zhou, X. J., 2006: Research on meso-scale meteorology in Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences. J. Appl. Meteor. Sci., 17, 665–671. (in Chinese) doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1001-7313.2006.06.004
[174] Zhou, X. P., S. X. Zhao, and B. Y. Zhang, 1984: A numerical simulation of the meso-low formation on Mei-Yu front. Scientia Atmos. Sinica, 8, 353–361. (in Chinese) doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.1984.04.01
[175] Zhou, X. P., S. X. Zhao, K. S. Zhang, et al., 1988: A heavy rainfall numerical prediction model for the East Asian monsoon area. Scientia Atmos. Sinica, 12, 60–78. (in Chinese) doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.1988.t1.05
[176] Zhu, C. J., 1977: How to analyze satellite cloud images: (III) Analysis of synoptic-scale cloud systems. Meteor. Mon., 3, 13–15. (in Chinese) doi: 10.7519/j.issn.1000-0526.1977.11.008
[177] Zou, M. E., and S. Y. Tao, 1984: A study on the formation and maintenance of the inversion layer in the severe storms in Hunan Province. Scientia Atmos. Sinica, 8, 135–142. (in Chinese) doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.1984.02.03